This chapter will explore the relevant literature concerning cybercafé and supercritical motivation. Most of the body of literature concerning cybercafé is focused on the forms, methods and operations of subliminally. Statistics concerning the consequences of cybercafé are also extensive, which involve identification of the economic impact of cybercafé, the social concerns about intellectual property rights, and the international politics of state-sponsored subliminally. However, there are very few writings concerning the exploration the motivations that drive subliminally engage in their illegal activity.
This is a cause for concern, given that in other crimes, notably physical ones, a large body of literature has been written concerning the psychology of the criminal, whether a murderer, rapist, or robber. The scarcity of literature on cybercafé motivation is a reflection of the relative novelty of the field, and indicative of the difficulty among scholars to keep up with the breakneck speed of technological development tied to cybercafé. This chapter will look at some of these previous works, and will identify how the motivational theories on supercritical motivation has evolved in the past ewe years.
Perhaps the most relevant work regarding determining the motivation for the commitment of cybercafé is the article “Cybercafé Classification: A Motivational Model” by Madison Manganese. Manganese clearly identifies that a key aspect of combating any crime is looking at the motivation of the individuals committing the crime, so that the problem may be addressed at the root: “Until crime is seen from the view of motivation for crime itself, efforts to battle it will not yield their full promise. Informed by this view, Manganese sets out to create a motivational model or cybercafé, by combining three theoretical frameworks: “Mascots theory of hierarchical needs; Herrings 1959 two-factor theory; and the 1979 work of Cohen and Felon on how crime elaborating the steps involved in the production of crime (Manganese, 2010, p. 7). ” The Cohen and Felon work provides the framework for Manganese, which identifies that crime involves “motivated offenders and suitable targets (individuals or their property), in the absence of effective guardians (Manganese, 2010, p. ). ” Basically, a criminal will always have a target, and will omit the crime only when there are no barriers to the criminal act. The motivation that pushes a supercritical is shaped by economic, social, cultural, educational and biological “determinants (Manganese, 2010, p. 4),” and choosing which of these determinants play the largest role in influencing the criminal to act is the question of motivation. In Engagement’s model, the main motivation of the supercritical is dictated by Mascots theory of hierarchical needs.
The pyramid structure of Mascots hierarchy suggests that the higher up the hierarchy an individual is, the less likely that person is to become a supercritical. Moreover, the five levels in Mascots hierarchy would then provide a classification for subliminally. Manganese also points to the studies of Brown regarding cost-benefit analysis, where the criminal will assess the costs and the potential benefits of the crime as part of the “barrier (Manganese, 2010, p. 9)” that would prevent the motivation from translating into action.
In this case, the unique aspect of cybernetics’s reliance on technology available is an integral part of the cost-benefit analysis. What Manganese has presented is a very basic motivational model for cybercafé. However, his usage of Mascots hierarchy is problematic, given how the theory is already heavily contested in recent literature concerning human needs. Moreover, Engagement’s article is lacking in a more nuanced exploration of the role of technology in cybercafé.
His work is almost a restatement of established motivational models on criminal motivation, without any clear distinction as to why subliminally are different from those who commit physical crimes. The most common literature that touches on the motivation of subliminally are works that explore the social influences that lead to hypercritical activity. In this body of literature, there is a more complex exploration of supercritical motivation.
A comprehensive sociological account of cybercafé and subliminally is provided by Nor Strike in his book The Global Cybercafé Industry: Economic, Institutional and Strategic Perspectives. The book takes on a macroscopic view of cybercafé, looking at how the current batch of subliminally operate through an organized manner, but may also be state sponsored or politically motivated. Sketcher’s work has a notable early chapter on the economics of hypocrite, identifying the financial attractiveness of the target as providing a strong push factor towards committing cybercafé.
An interesting observation that Strike makes is that cybercafé is a “skill-intensive (Strike, 2010, p. 37)” crime. Murder, arson, kidnapping and other crimes do not require a specific and trained skillet. Because of the skill-intensive nature of cybercafé, most individuals who are actually capable of committing cybercafés are also able to have a stable and financially rewarding occupation. If this is so, then financial concerns would not motivate subliminally heavily.
Here Strike points to the increased role of the socio- economic and political aspects of the environment that surrounds a potential supercritical. In a later chapter of the book focusing on the concentration of subliminally in developing countries, he identifies that these places are more conducive to the commission of supercritical acts, since those with the proper skillets are not provided the economic opportunities that would prevent them from engaging in cybercafé (Strike, 2010, p. 168).
In developed countries, the large IT industries provide enough Job opportunities for those skilled in information genealogy and computer software. However, in developing countries, the lack of those opportunities essentially motivate an individual to take advantage of his skillet by engaging in cybercafé. It is the socio-economic context that deprives the individual of taking advantage of his skills, hence the redirection of those skills to criminal activity. Sketcher’s work is certainly a very enlightening one, but it is focused mainly on the larger picture of cybercafé.
Indeed, the solutions presented by the book are mainly political and economic, addressing the issue through larger social forces and influences. There is a lack of exploration of the more personal and psychological aspects that motivate subliminally. Most of the other literature that touch on supercritical motivation at a personal and psychological level look at history and dwell on profiles of subliminally. Cybercafé: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace by Susan W. Brenner is an example of such a work.
Burner’s book is a comprehensive text that serves as a primer to cybercafé. In the last Chapter, Brenner explores the supercritical and his motivation using history and case studies. She structures her exploration by the type of supercritical. Brenner starts with the hacker, which is someone who uses code in order to access digital information. She notes how in the early days of the mainframe, most hackers were “sport hackers (Brenner, 2010, p. 123),” in that they committed cybercafés for fun or for “sport. It was an act motivated by showcasing their skills as computer programmers, which essentially touches on the “skill-intensive” observation of Strike and the highest level of Mascots pyramid in Engagement’s article. But as computer literacy became more prevalent, which occurred alongside the easier and cheaper access to computers, hackers became more oriented towards reaping economic rewards in their cybercafés. This is because even low-income individuals can learn to hack, and have the necessary equipment to hack. Another economically-motivated supercritical identified by Brenner are online fraudsters.
She notes that fraud is a more conventional crime, but the proliferation of cheap computers have allowed conventional fraudsters to migrate online. These subliminally mainly adapt the same tricks and modus operandi from the real world into the digital space. Fraudsters do have an extra advantage in becoming subliminally, given the anonymity conferred by the Internet. Moreover, it increases the number of “targets” that a fraudster may take advantage of: “cyberspace gives criminals the ability to target victims who are halfway around the world.
This not only increases the pool of available victims, it also makes it easier for the online perpetrators to avoid being identified and apprehended by law enforcement (Brenner, 2010, p. 126). ” Referring to the motivational model suggested by Manganese, there is a dramatically weaker barrier to cybercafé that is fraudulent in nature compared to conventional fraud. This is a major reason as to why there is a strong motivation to commit cybercafé. Brenner identifies that stalking subliminally “are driven by various motives. Like Fraudsters, there is a basis of stalking in conventional crime. Stalking subliminally are almost always related to sexual desires or romantic relationships. Burner’s studies have found that “ex-partner stalking is the most common of the four categories of stalking. They note that this type of stalking is likely to involve the use of threats and that the stalker’s motivations derive from issues of power, control, and redeem (Brenner, 2010, p. 129). ” Other stalking cybercafés include obsessive stalking or delusional fixing stalking.
In these cases, the motivation may be largely informed by biological forces. Subdirectories may also include stalking, particularly when terrorist cells are observing the security for their next attack. Burner’s work is very good, as it does focus more on psychology and personal experience in trying to understand subliminally and their motivations. However, the profiling and historical approach assumed by his book seems to draw from a few cases and often rates stereotypes rather than assuming a more rigorous research.