CyberCrime Motivation

CyberCrime Motivation

This chapter will explore the relevant literature concerning cybercafé and supercritical motivation. Most of the body of literature concerning cybercafé is focused on the forms, methods and operations of subliminally. Statistics concerning the consequences of cybercafé are also extensive, which involve identification of the economic impact of cybercafé, the social concerns about intellectual property rights, and the international politics of state-sponsored subliminally. However, there are very few writings concerning the exploration the motivations that drive subliminally engage in their illegal activity.

This is a cause for concern, given that in other crimes, notably physical ones, a large body of literature has been written concerning the psychology of the criminal, whether a murderer, rapist, or robber. The scarcity of literature on cybercafé motivation is a reflection of the relative novelty of the field, and indicative of the difficulty among scholars to keep up with the breakneck speed of technological development tied to cybercafé. This chapter will look at some of these previous works, and will identify how the motivational theories on supercritical motivation has evolved in the past ewe years.

Perhaps the most relevant work regarding determining the motivation for the commitment of cybercafé is the article “Cybercafé Classification: A Motivational Model” by Madison Manganese. Manganese clearly identifies that a key aspect of combating any crime is looking at the motivation of the individuals committing the crime, so that the problem may be addressed at the root: “Until crime is seen from the view of motivation for crime itself, efforts to battle it will not yield their full promise. Informed by this view, Manganese sets out to create a motivational model or cybercafé, by combining three theoretical frameworks: “Mascots theory of hierarchical needs; Herrings 1959 two-factor theory; and the 1979 work of Cohen and Felon on how crime elaborating the steps involved in the production of crime (Manganese, 2010, p. 7). ” The Cohen and Felon work provides the framework for Manganese, which identifies that crime involves “motivated offenders and suitable targets (individuals or their property), in the absence of effective guardians (Manganese, 2010, p. ). ” Basically, a criminal will always have a target, and will omit the crime only when there are no barriers to the criminal act. The motivation that pushes a supercritical is shaped by economic, social, cultural, educational and biological “determinants (Manganese, 2010, p. 4),” and choosing which of these determinants play the largest role in influencing the criminal to act is the question of motivation. In Engagement’s model, the main motivation of the supercritical is dictated by Mascots theory of hierarchical needs.

The pyramid structure of Mascots hierarchy suggests that the higher up the hierarchy an individual is, the less likely that person is to become a supercritical. Moreover, the five levels in Mascots hierarchy would then provide a classification for subliminally. Manganese also points to the studies of Brown regarding cost-benefit analysis, where the criminal will assess the costs and the potential benefits of the crime as part of the “barrier (Manganese, 2010, p. 9)” that would prevent the motivation from translating into action.

In this case, the unique aspect of cybernetics’s reliance on technology available is an integral part of the cost-benefit analysis. What Manganese has presented is a very basic motivational model for cybercafé. However, his usage of Mascots hierarchy is problematic, given how the theory is already heavily contested in recent literature concerning human needs. Moreover, Engagement’s article is lacking in a more nuanced exploration of the role of technology in cybercafé.

His work is almost a restatement of established motivational models on criminal motivation, without any clear distinction as to why subliminally are different from those who commit physical crimes. The most common literature that touches on the motivation of subliminally are works that explore the social influences that lead to hypercritical activity. In this body of literature, there is a more complex exploration of supercritical motivation.

A comprehensive sociological account of cybercafé and subliminally is provided by Nor Strike in his book The Global Cybercafé Industry: Economic, Institutional and Strategic Perspectives. The book takes on a macroscopic view of cybercafé, looking at how the current batch of subliminally operate through an organized manner, but may also be state sponsored or politically motivated. Sketcher’s work has a notable early chapter on the economics of hypocrite, identifying the financial attractiveness of the target as providing a strong push factor towards committing cybercafé.

An interesting observation that Strike makes is that cybercafé is a “skill-intensive (Strike, 2010, p. 37)” crime. Murder, arson, kidnapping and other crimes do not require a specific and trained skillet. Because of the skill-intensive nature of cybercafé, most individuals who are actually capable of committing cybercafés are also able to have a stable and financially rewarding occupation. If this is so, then financial concerns would not motivate subliminally heavily.

Here Strike points to the increased role of the socio- economic and political aspects of the environment that surrounds a potential supercritical. In a later chapter of the book focusing on the concentration of subliminally in developing countries, he identifies that these places are more conducive to the commission of supercritical acts, since those with the proper skillets are not provided the economic opportunities that would prevent them from engaging in cybercafé (Strike, 2010, p. 168).

In developed countries, the large IT industries provide enough Job opportunities for those skilled in information genealogy and computer software. However, in developing countries, the lack of those opportunities essentially motivate an individual to take advantage of his skillet by engaging in cybercafé. It is the socio-economic context that deprives the individual of taking advantage of his skills, hence the redirection of those skills to criminal activity. Sketcher’s work is certainly a very enlightening one, but it is focused mainly on the larger picture of cybercafé.

Indeed, the solutions presented by the book are mainly political and economic, addressing the issue through larger social forces and influences. There is a lack of exploration of the more personal and psychological aspects that motivate subliminally. Most of the other literature that touch on supercritical motivation at a personal and psychological level look at history and dwell on profiles of subliminally. Cybercafé: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace by Susan W. Brenner is an example of such a work.

Burner’s book is a comprehensive text that serves as a primer to cybercafé. In the last Chapter, Brenner explores the supercritical and his motivation using history and case studies. She structures her exploration by the type of supercritical. Brenner starts with the hacker, which is someone who uses code in order to access digital information. She notes how in the early days of the mainframe, most hackers were “sport hackers (Brenner, 2010, p. 123),” in that they committed cybercafés for fun or for “sport. It was an act motivated by showcasing their skills as computer programmers, which essentially touches on the “skill-intensive” observation of Strike and the highest level of Mascots pyramid in Engagement’s article. But as computer literacy became more prevalent, which occurred alongside the easier and cheaper access to computers, hackers became more oriented towards reaping economic rewards in their cybercafés. This is because even low-income individuals can learn to hack, and have the necessary equipment to hack. Another economically-motivated supercritical identified by Brenner are online fraudsters.

She notes that fraud is a more conventional crime, but the proliferation of cheap computers have allowed conventional fraudsters to migrate online. These subliminally mainly adapt the same tricks and modus operandi from the real world into the digital space. Fraudsters do have an extra advantage in becoming subliminally, given the anonymity conferred by the Internet. Moreover, it increases the number of “targets” that a fraudster may take advantage of: “cyberspace gives criminals the ability to target victims who are halfway around the world.

This not only increases the pool of available victims, it also makes it easier for the online perpetrators to avoid being identified and apprehended by law enforcement (Brenner, 2010, p. 126). ” Referring to the motivational model suggested by Manganese, there is a dramatically weaker barrier to cybercafé that is fraudulent in nature compared to conventional fraud. This is a major reason as to why there is a strong motivation to commit cybercafé. Brenner identifies that stalking subliminally “are driven by various motives. Like Fraudsters, there is a basis of stalking in conventional crime. Stalking subliminally are almost always related to sexual desires or romantic relationships. Burner’s studies have found that “ex-partner stalking is the most common of the four categories of stalking. They note that this type of stalking is likely to involve the use of threats and that the stalker’s motivations derive from issues of power, control, and redeem (Brenner, 2010, p. 129). ” Other stalking cybercafés include obsessive stalking or delusional fixing stalking.

In these cases, the motivation may be largely informed by biological forces. Subdirectories may also include stalking, particularly when terrorist cells are observing the security for their next attack. Burner’s work is very good, as it does focus more on psychology and personal experience in trying to understand subliminally and their motivations. However, the profiling and historical approach assumed by his book seems to draw from a few cases and often rates stereotypes rather than assuming a more rigorous research.

Managing Motivation In Diffic

Organizational Justice:- Organizational Justice is the overall perception of what is fair in the workplace. Disruptive Justice is the employee’s perception of fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. E. G. How much we get paid relative to what we think we should be paid? Similarly, Procedural Justice is the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of reward. For employees to see a process as a fair, they need to feel they have some control over the outcome and that they were given an adequate explanation about why the outcome occurred.

Finally, International Justice is an individual’s perception of the degree to which she is treated with dignity, concern and respect. B. Diversity and Age:- Workforce diversity can be studied under two headings:- I. Surface level diversity: – This is the differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age or disability that may activate certain stereotypes. It. Deep level diversity:- This is the differences in values personality and work preferences that get to know on another better.

Age:- Analyzing the perception of older worker, positively they have tremendous experience, Judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. On the other hand older workers also perceived as lacking flexibility, and resisting new technology. When any organization actively seeks individuals who are adaptable and open to change, the negatives associated with age clearly hinder the initial hiring of older workers and increase the likelihood they will be let go during cutback. C. Goal Setting:- Goal setting theory says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.

Example:- If we set our goal to achieve CAP of 3. 8 out of 4, our reference will be much more better than Just to aim to finish the course. Also, once we accept hard task, we will exert a high level of effort trying to achieve it. D. Changing Nature of work:- There are various factors that help to change the nature of the work. Some of them are:- I. Nature of workforce. It. Technology Economic shocks iii. ‘v. Competition v. Social trends v’. World politics Organizational Downsizing:- e. Organizational Downsizing is a systematic effort to make an organization leaner by selling off business units, closing locations, or reducing staffs.

Mart is a major regional player in the retail industry and has 100 of stores. A sharp decline in the economy has put the management in a serious financial position. The firm had to close quite a few locations, reversing its expansion plan. Hair Parkas is the vice president of human relation and has been struggling with how to address the issue with employees. A few angry blobs developed by laid-off employees have made the morale and public relations picture even worse The average age of its workforce is increasing rapidly. The employee’s insecurity was taking a toll on attitude.

Vice President was himself not sure of how to respond to employees hopelessness. ANALYSIS OF THE CASE The case is very interesting and involving. It perfectly sketches the sudden risks that an organization is prone to in a changed situation. Further, the case has also emphasized that human resource is the most crucial and dynamic resource of an organization and having it denominated means crumbling down of the organizational success. Therefore, the case also presents various programs which may increase the motivation level of employees in such complex happenings.

To better understand the ease, we will need to look into various dependent and independent variables of the management system because their interplay is vividly presented in this case: Dependent Variables *Productivity: It is dependent on goals by transforming inputs into outputs at lower cost. Thus productivity is dependent on both effectiveness and efficiency. *Turnover: It often cost the organization people it does not want to lose. It increases recruiting, selection and training cost. *Deviant workplace behavior: Deviance can range from playing music too loudly to violence.

It may be a direct consequence of employee dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction: A positive feeling about your Job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Independent Variables Independent variables are presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable. *Individual Level Variables: When individuals enter in organization, they are bit like used cars. Therefore, Managers, unlike parents must work with used, not new, human beings – whom other have gotten to first. *Group Level Variables: The behavior of people in groups is more than the sum of all the individuals acting in their own way. Organizational System-level Variables: The design of the formal organization, the organization’s internal culture, its human resource policies and practices, and change and stress all has an impact on the individual and group dynamics of the employees. A very renowned and successful company, RE mart, has suddenly faced economic decline. Rather say, unforeseen crisis for which company was not prepared. As a consequence, the organization is compelled to resort to downsizing. This has created situations which have left the employees of the company feel insecure about their future and also frustrated.

Productivity of the employees is sure to suffer and turnover is bound to increase. The drive of the employees to achieve their goals in the context of organizational settings is also going to be hampered. Since their individual level variables (characteristics, attitude and the culture with which they are modeled) are unique to each of them, their individual and group dynamics are certain to be adversely affected. In changed organization system level- variables, the organization has a huge challenge to minimize such counter effects of the situation.

As a way out to keep the employees motivated, the HER has proposed 5 different sets of management program. Program 1: Providing Employees with no information or opportunities for participation and continuing to stay the course. Program 2: Track employee absence and sick leave and sharing it with employees and giving feedback about things they can control. Program 3: Track sales and inventory replacement rates. Program 4: Sharing information and conducting weekly brain storming sessions. Program 5: Brainstorming but doesn’t share information about the employee’s behavior or company profits.

HER assumes that the 4th method is the most effective method. In this method managers share information and conduct brain storming sessions. There should be organizational Justice while we are conducting the brain storming sessions as there might be conflict between the employees regarding their ideas and opinions. Organizations cannot live in fantasized world. Situations will keep changing. Adversities like economic decline and others will keep occurring. It cannot expect an ideal and favorable business atmosphere throughout the Journey.

The least an organization can do is to anticipate such happenings and stay alert. It is the responsibility of the organization to keep their employees enthusiastic, motivated ND devoted to it in the face of even the worst adversities by being able to make the employees relate to their importance in the bigger vision. Until and unless the employees imbibe in their heart mind and soul that the ultimate goal and the vision of the organization is also theirs, they will not inherently be aspiring to work for the organization.

Therefore, each and every staff must be made feel important how every single effort of theirs contribute significantly to achieve the organizational vision. The leaders should be able to incorporate a feeling of mutuality in the employees by involving them in the situation. Involving in the situation would mean unsparingly telling the employees about the present condition of the organization, the challenges the organization is facing and how not tackling it would mean debilitating the chance of reaching the organizational goals, and finally how everyone’s dreams, ambitions and aspirations are related to these goals.

Employees will then contribute their ideas to find a resolution to the crisis because they are the ones with hands on experience to also understand the difficulties. The management must be able to include these ideas smartly in the problem solving step by giving proper explanations that why they are accepting a particular idea. As a result it will help to increase the motivation level and they feel participative.

Developing a Motivational Plan essay

In order to develop a plan to motivate their employees, school leaders mind themselves pondering and researching ideas related to motivation. Over time many of them come to the realization that they must answer questions specific questions if they are to develop a plan that works: A few of the questions they might ask are: (I) How to provide a motivational plan, which includes incentives inclusive of both traditional elements ( money) and nontraditional elements? (it) What would the nontraditional elements include? (iii) How to keep faculty and staff focused on the plan and provide them the means they need in order to make the plan successful? V)What effect will the plan have on the work environment/atmosphere of the school? In order to foster success, school leaders realize that school systems need motivation plans that motivate via providing incentives that are desired. They need a plan that keep stakeholders (faculty, staff, students, parents, community, etc. ) involved in the process and yields increased value to the organization’s success. In order to increase the success of her school, the author of this essay set out to identify and describe the motivational plan in her school.

This paper identifies the plan by addressing the devotional theories could be utilized to develop a motivation plan for faculty, staff and students in her school. She begins by identifying and explaining motivational theories and how they apply to her school setting. Motivational Theories The author begins by stating that the motivational theory that is best suited to create a motivation plan for the faculty, staff and students in her school is the Goal-setting- Theory. The goal setting theory is comprised of techniques utilized to increase incentives for workers to complete work effectively and quickly.

This theory leads to utter performance by raising motivation, staff efforts as well as increase and improve quality feedback (MS, 2013). The author believes that the Goal Setting Theory is most applicable to her school setting because it fosters the belief that specific intentions expressed by an individual and made into goals determine the achievement a staff places on his/her tasks, which then fosters levels of desirability needed to attain said goal(s). The author state the Goal-setting Theory of motivation fosters his belief that plans expressed as goals, can be an important source of work titivation.

In other words the higher the worker’s self-efficacy as it relate to a specific task, they are more likely than not to set higher goals, and the more determination they will show in achieving them. (Goals Setting Theory, n. D. ). Goals that are accepted by others result in more success and productivity. Allowing faculty, staff and students to actively participate in determining what is done and allowing them the opportunity to help set their own goals is a very powerful inducement (motivator). The Goal Setting theory makes employees feel much more involved in heir services and tasks.

The belief is the employee (staff begins to feel inclusiveness (a part of). They are not a number or machine that does the same thing from one day to the next, fostering a unique and creative feature in the environment in which employees interact. The Goal Setting Theory foster’s and instills increased feelings of self-worth. These feeling keeps the employee motivated. The faculty, staff and students know that they had a hand in determining the “what” and “how’ they achieve their responsibilities. This shifts the onus (obligations, responsibilities) more o them and away from the organization, which employs them.

This Goal Setting Theory is the framework from which the authors’ motivational plan is based upon. In combination with the Goal Setting theory, the motivational plan is grounded in part upon the author’s own experiences as well as guidelines extracted from an outlined motivational plan provided by the school. Below is a general outline of the plan: Motivational Plan Components Motivation plans are extremely important for the success of any organization. There are very specific components that are essential to move organizations towards success.

The author has identified components that are major components needed in the plan for her school. Key components of the motivational plan needed for her for her school are beliefs, mission statement, goals/objectives, parameter and tactics. The author feels like each component is greatly affects student/school success. Each component acts as a guide to help the stakeholders (teachers, students, etc. ) understands and knows what they are working towards. Each component serves to create greater understanding and inclusion of the meaning of movement towards educational success.

Although stakeholders may set personal goals, it’s important that there are group plans and/or goals so that stakeholders (teachers, other staff, students, parents, businesses, community, etc. ) can work together to achieve them and be more motivated. Hundreds of studies reflect that employees who are given specific goals (even if difficult) perform better than those who are given easy, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all (Lundeberg, 2011). Components of the Motivational Plan The first component identified by the author for her motivational plan is a section for “Beliefs”.

Beliefs are the creed by which the school functions. They are statements of faith. An example of a belief statement developed by the author is: ” High quality education yields responsible citizens and vital communities. ” The next component, listed is the “Mission” statement. The mission is the framework of the plan. It guides the actions of the school. It basically spells out the complete goal, providing a path, and guides decision-making. It is the context from which the school strategies are formed. It’s the goal for what the school wants to do.

An example of the “Mission tenement is: The mission of the school district is to create a path to lifetime success where students grow and thrive to their fullest potential through an environment that fosters respect, an engaging, challenging, learning experiences guided by passionate, highly qualified educators in partnership with communities and families. The next section is the section that contains “Objectives”. Objectives are statements, which briefly describes concrete actions that will be taken based on the mission and beliefs.

An example of an objective coined by the author is: “Each student will achieve arsenal excellence by discovering and developing potential based on talents and unique needs. The next component enlisted in the author’s motivational plan is “Parameters”. Parameters are special considerations and factors the author think are important to work within to attain the objectives. An example of a parameter utilized by the author is: “Decisions will be made based upon what is best for students. ” The last section or component enlisted on the author’s motivational plan is the section titled “Tactics”.

This section reflect strategies the school will implement to attain the session and objectives. An example is: “The staff will implement innovative, engaging, rigorous learning experiences that will enhance learning beyond traditional academics . In conclusion motivated teachers, students and other staff are key elements in the success of student learning. Leaders must identify factors that motivate their employees. Teachers must identify strategies that motivate students. Stakeholders need to come together and discuss their ideas and answer questions in order to develop a feasible motivational plan.

Case Motivation For Zeus

Zeus Asset Management Learning objectives 0 Consider different types of investors with different risk preferences and how their investments differ as a result 0 Examine how different mutual fund investments might allow individual investors to invest in portfolios otherwise not within their reach. 0 Understand how fund performance is estimated and the caveats associated with a focus on returns without taking into account the risks associated with generating them. Be capable of determining the best risk-adjusted measure of return for a particular investment. Case Synopsis 0 This case centers around Zeus Asset Management Inc. Zeus is an asset management firm with both individual (high net worth) investors and institutional investors. Zeus is known for its relationship-orientated client services and has a conservative, risk-averse quality-oriented approach to investment management. Given their diverse client base and their individual needs, Zeus is interested in improving their measures of fund performance, which to date has consisted mainly f holding period and benchmark returns.

Zeus is particularly interested in obtaining risk-adjusted return measures. 3 Case Synopsis continued 0 Key questions for consideration 1 . How does Zeus differ from its main competitors 2. Why is estimation of risk-adjusted returns of particular interest to Zeus? 3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the risk-adjusted return measures employed. 4 Potential questions to address in your report Discuss the alternative performance measures and mention the merits for each of them. Discuss why absolute or relative returns may not reveal the entire truth about performance.

Examine the choice of appropriate benchmark for each of Zeus mutual funds. Estimate performance measures for each of mutual funds for Zeus as well as for the appropriate comparison index. 5 Submission (Case: Zeus) You may work in groups but document and submit individually: – Penalties will apply if we spot collusion – Groups must be registered with Male You must document: 0 Any assumptions you have made not specified in the case Show any calculations (if relevant) in the Appendix Depending on your formatting about 3-4 pages and not more than 5 pages, 1. Spacing and 12 point font. Submission Due Date: 12 noon Monday 23 March, 2015. Submit via MODEL 6 Sample Template Key points facts and problems: 1 . What are the problems and the key issues that arise 2. Address the given discussion points or questions.

Motivational Strategy and Action Plan

Motivation Action Plan Determine the motivational strategy or strategies that would likely be most appropriate for each of your three employees on basis of their individual characteristics. Indicate how you would leverage their employee evaluations to motivate each of the three employees. Describe one or more of the motivational theories and explain how the theories connect to each of your selected motivational strategies. Team Member Name Summary of Individual Characteristics

Motivational Strategy and Action Plan Relevant Theory Tina Engaged Passionate Persistent Inspirational Leader Happy Emotional stable This employee would not really need much motivation, since already in engaged, passionate and is a leader at work. I would suggest that the employee uses an action plan to continue with positive attitude. Also since the employee has passed reviews, to advance in progress with promotions in the company. McClellan theory is relevant to this situation.

It relates to this situation because for the most part the employee is happy at the Job. Brittany Competitive Good communicator Influential Independent Emotional Quick thinker This employee shouldn’t much motivation since she is so competitive. However we could motivate her to be more engaged and happy at Job since so emotional. An action plan for this strategy would be to assign her to do task she is interested and likes to do that are easy and take little thought since she is a quick thinker.

This situation relates to the self-efficiency theory because employee is independent. She likes to do things on her own and feels she can. Denies Timid Considerate Neutral decision maker Eager Happy with Job Encouraging This employee needs motivation in company involvement in communication since timid and shy. She can demonstrate these skills in an action plan by being more involved in conferences, presentations, and meetings. This situation could be also related to the McClellan theory because for the employee is happy with Job, but there is room for opportunity.

Analyze Two Main Theories of Motivation Namely

According to Riley (2012) if these are the factors are considered as inadequate by employees, then they cause dissatisfaction at work, riley further makes examples of what hygiene factors Motivator or intrinsic factors: are based on the individual’s need for personal growth. When they exist, motivator factors actively create Job satisfaction. Riley (2012) says that if these are effective then they can motivate an individual to achieve above average performance and effort.

Motivator factors include: From as early as the beginning of the 20th Century, corporations began to realize that motivated employees are a strategic necessity in the harshly competitive and fast paced market place. This new understanding or paradigm shift brought to an end the era of coercive, machine-like workplaces where employees were considered to be Just another input in the production of goods and services.

Hence the reason, there has been substantial research that has been done and is still being carried in the area of employee motivation and there is a general consensus that that employee motivation and company performance are positively related. The concept of motivation has been variably described by many authors, but for the purpose of this analysis, Higgins (1994) definition will be borrowed. He describes motivation as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.

The global economic downturn has had damning effects on companies which have oft many employees disengaged and denominated and yet according to Smith (1994), companies need motivated employees for survival because motivated employees help organizations to survive even in the most turbulent of times. There has therefore never been a time when companies needed motivated employees more than this time.

The purpose of this paper therefore is to analyze two main theories of motivation namely: Mascots hierarchy of needs theory and Herbert two-factor theory and how they can be applied by companies to boost workers’ satisfaction and therefore, organizational effectiveness. Organizational Effectiveness: There is no true consensus about the definition of this ubiquitous term. Wisped defines it as the concept of how effective an organization is in achieving the outcomes the organization intends to produce’. 2.

Employee Engagement: Is the ‘extent to which employees feel passionate about their Jobs, are committed to the organization, and put discretionary effort in their work. Passion, commitment, and most importantly, discretionary effort. Engaged employees are motivated to do more than the bare minimum needed in order to keep their Jobs’, Custom Insight (2011) 3. Disengagement: has two levels a) Disengaged employees: Disengaged employees don’t have an emotional commitment to their work or their place of employment, according to Enter Corporation, which has conducted employee surveys since 1966.

Enter emphasizes that disengaged employees aren’t necessarily bad employees, but they Just do what’s necessary to get their Jobs done. They typically don’t take part in offering suggestions for improving the workplace. Enter indicates that disengaged employees usually don’t stay at work late if it’s not required, and they don’t give their jobs much thought after they finish a workday. ) Actively disengaged employees: These are the workers who undermine their Jobs and employers.

Actively disengaged employees can sink employee morale and performance. In such cases, employers should try to determine what’s behind active disengagement to prevent it from getting out of control. 4. Employee satisfaction: Is the extent to which employees are happy or content with their Jobs and work environment. 3 MOTIVATION THEORIES: 1. MASON’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY: In 1943, psychologist Abraham Moscow theorized that people have five basic needs and he further came up with a pyramid that prioritize these needs.

His needs-based framework went on to become a model for both personal empowerment and workplace management, and embraces the concept that basic needs must first be satisfied before higher, unselfish goals can be pursued and achieved. Several companies have implemented the ideas of this theory with differing success levels. The theory is delved into below and examples are used to substantiate the analysis. Physiological Needs Moscow identified the core physiological needs to sustain human life as air, water, food and sleep.

To perform their Jobs, workers require healthy air to earth, water to keep their systems hydrated, sustenance to fuel their bodies and adequate time to rest and recuperate between shifts, including regularly scheduled breaks. As described in his own book, “Moscow on Management (1963),” Moscow cites that when deficiencies exist in these four basic requirements for survival, people become incapable of developing any ambition, much less acting on it and achieving their full potential.

In regard to a work place, this could mean furnishing a pleasant and comfortable environment for staff to work in. A company that has embraced this idea is MINT Swaziland. Their new state of the art building was not Just constructed for aesthetics, but the construction was also a strategic goal with regards to their Employee Value Proposition. The building has ample work space, beautifully furnished staff canteen, gymnasium for the staff, day care center for staff children, golf course and a club house.

A survey that was conducted after the relocation to these new premises showed that staff were now happier and were willing to work extra hours as it had become more comfortable for them to do so. According to Dan Romania, the communications Manager from Hewlett-Packard’s HP) Geographic Operations, HP attempts to retain its employees and keep them motivated by offering not only competitive salaries and benefits, but also perks like flexible time off from work are specific examples of physiological, social and ego needs.

They also provide company cars or memberships privileges at country clubs. He further mentioned that HP is also using benefits such as non-cash bonuses or additional paid time off if company goals are met. Others like managers taking employees out to lunch to reward good work or allowing them to use reserve parking spaces for performances above and beyond the norm. By offering attractive benefits and satisfying employee needs, the employers will reap the positive benefit of motivated employees a Safety Needs A safe and secure working environment reduces the threat of physical injury.

When workers believe that the level of risk has been minimized and that good health and safety practices are Judiciously enforced and monitored by management, they feel more comfortable and are less distracted from performing their tasks and interacting with others. Conscientious safety practices reduce absenteeism as well, which can impact productivity and morale. Security also extends to emotional well being in the workplace. An employer that provides medical benefits contributes to retirement plans and is financially solvent makes workers feel more secure about their Jobs and the future.

Conley (2010) writes that companies that demonstrate they care for the welfare of their workers create an atmosphere of trust which, in turn, encourages loyalty and decreases stress. Coca cola is a typical example of a company that has harnessed the power of this theory because they understand that their success depends upon ensuring the safety of their workers. So they integrated the Coca-cola Safety Management System as part of their day to day management. This system incorporates occupational safety, quality, environment and loss prevention into a single framework.

It also defines rigorous operational controls. With this in place, the company has employees that are able to work without worrying 5 about safety, thereby focusing all their energy into production. This could explain why coca-cola has remained the world’s number one brand even throughout the economic down turn. Onto a single framework. Social Needs Man is a social animal and, accordingly, seeks out companionship, acceptance and inclusion. Moscow identifies social needs as friendships, peer support and the ability to give and receive love.

Fedora (2009) observes that the workplace offers an opportunity to be part of a team in which members share their respective knowledge, skills and unique experiences to solve problems in which they have a vested interest. Competitions, focus groups, mentoring, brainstorming sessions, after-work get-together and even office potlucks can make employees feel as if they are “family. ” A small company that is nestled at Giuliani is cognizant of this fact. Bethel Court Hotel has formalized daily devotion which is a crucial element to the staff.

There is a special hall that is designated for such purposes. This hall is well taken care of and is well furnished. This crucial component unites the staff and makes them feel like family. Hence the reason, they are always motivated to go the extra mile with regard to their work. Esteem Needs In concert with social needs is the desire to be recognized for personal accomplishments. Moscow divides this portion of his theory into external and internal motivators.

External motivators are prizes and awards stowed for outstanding performance, elevation in status such as a coveted promotion and newfound attention and admiration from others. Internal motivators are the private goals that workers set for themselves such as beating a prior month’s sales figures and the satisfaction of experiencing self-respect for having done the right thing. Silversides (2008), notes that fairness and consistency in the recognition process are critical. When employees know that their efforts aren’t going unnoticed by management, they take more pride in their work product.

In addition, their coworkers see 6 he correlation between responsibility and reward and may endeavor to set the performance bar higher for themselves. Once again, MINT Group of companies makes a good example of how meeting esteem needs through reward and recognition can motivate staff. Their annual bonuses are not shared equally amongst staff, each staff member is rewarded a bonus in accordance with the performance appraisal score. The higher the score, the higher the bonus. Furthermore, individual annual increases are also determined by the performance of individual employees.

The effect that this has is that; throughout the ear, the employees work with a mind to deliver set targets because they are aware that delivering or mot delivering has an implication on their pockets. So there is always a drive and motivation to go beyond set goals. Self-Actualization Once the quartet of physiological, safety, social and self-esteem needs are met, Moscow believed that individuals are capable of achieving their true potential and embodying truth, meaning, wisdom and Justice in their words and actions. Self-actualization moves them to a higher plateau of understanding as well as a greater empathy for the needs of others.

Those who achieve this ultimate state and Moscow himself speculated that it was only 2 percent of the population enjoy a greater autonomy, have a deeper sense of humility and respect for others and a better sense of distinguishing between real and fake. Moscow also tied this to the belief that the journey in whatever form it takes can be more rewarding than the actual destination. Managers can apply this to a practice of appreciating the worth of each of the individuals “traveling” with them rather than focusing so intently on the end-game that they lose all sight of human emotions.

Motivation and Performance Management

Management Compare the difference between Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Determine which is more strongly related to performance for your selected company. Job satisfaction can be known to some people as an important element in their lives. Other parts of their lives can be affected, if an individual is unhappy with their occupation. Job satisfaction can be viewed as what one has in a Job as to what one wants in their current Job. Job satisfaction can be defined as an attitude or feeling one can have toward ones Job.

Job satisfaction can also be defined as “the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) in their Jobs” (Specter, 1997). Job satisfaction is positively affected in a variety of ways including pay, perks, fringe benefits and perks. Job satisfaction can be affected by a sense that pay does not reflect work, lack of pay, or a lack of belief the organization values him or her. Worker dissatisfaction can lead to a lower level of organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is a key to employee retention. Employees yearn to know the work he or he provides has value to the organization he or she works for.

All these different factors can affect ones Job satisfaction. Organizational commitment is considered as an important definition of company effectiveness and Job satisfaction is a part of it. The organizational commitment mostly focuses on organizational behavior and psychology. Organizational commitment may be defined as “relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a specific organization. ” (Sums & Leash, 2013). Several factors, such as Job characteristics, Job performance, involvement in a goal setting and decision-making processes, forms an affective commitment in workers.

Job satisfaction and organizational commitment influence company performance and plays an important role in organization effectiveness. Organizational commitment and Job satisfaction are coupled together and are both strongly related to performance at General Mills. When looked at individually they demand different tools that are provided by the leaders of the organization. In order for the employees to know that their opinions are valued in the organization, the organization must respect the voice of their employees. Apply motivational theory and performance management principles to evaluate the company as a potential employer.

Not too long ago, employees were considered Just producers of goods and services. Today however, employees are much more of the equation and require more than Just a weekly paycheck. They require motivation. “Motivation represents those psychological processes that cause arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed” (Ford, 1992). General Mills has a long- standing commitment to good corporate governance practices. Managers play an important role in whether employees have positive or negative attitudes toward their jobs.

The CEO of General Mills recognized that managers have to pay attention to their own attitudes and behaviors to motivate the attitudes and performance of employees. Steve Ganger, CEO of General Mills, told his coworkers that he was working on being a better leader by developing his coaching skills. Ganger had reviewed his feedback, in which people told him he needed to do a better Job of coaching his direct reports. , Ganger adopted the attitude that he needed to improve himself to help others grow and improve, rather than become defensive.

When a top leader of a company displays arrogance and tells everyone else how they need to improve, that behavior and attitude filters down to every level of management. A “them- vs.-us” mindset often develops between employees and managers and performance, Job-satisfaction and motivation decline. Steve Ganger had an insight. He was open with people and admitted to his own weaknesses and efforts to improve. He also set an example for others to follow. Ganger has been noted for his enlightened attitudes about how to help employees be successful at work and in their personal lives.

CyberCrime Motivation

This chapter will explore the relevant literature concerning cybercafé and supercritical motivation. Most of the body of literature concerning cybercafé is focused on the forms, methods and operations of subliminally. Statistics concerning the consequences of cybercafé are also extensive, which involve identification of the economic impact of cybercafé, the social concerns about intellectual property rights, and the international politics of state-sponsored subliminally. However, there are very few writings concerning the exploration the motivations that drive subliminally engage in their illegal activity.

This is a cause for concern, given that in other crimes, notably physical ones, a large body of literature has been written concerning the psychology of the criminal, whether a murderer, rapist, or robber. The scarcity of literature on cybercafé motivation is a reflection of the relative novelty of the field, and indicative of the difficulty among scholars to keep up with the breakneck speed of technological development tied to cybercafé. This chapter will look at some of these previous works, and will identify how the motivational theories on supercritical motivation has evolved in the past ewe years.

Perhaps the most relevant work regarding determining the motivation for the commitment of cybercafé is the article “Cybercafé Classification: A Motivational Model” by Madison Manganese. Manganese clearly identifies that a key aspect of combating any crime is looking at the motivation of the individuals committing the crime, so that the problem may be addressed at the root: “Until crime is seen from the view of motivation for crime itself, efforts to battle it will not yield their full promise. Informed by this view, Manganese sets out to create a motivational model or cybercafé, by combining three theoretical frameworks: “Mascots theory of hierarchical needs; Herrings 1959 two-factor theory; and the 1979 work of Cohen and Felon on how crime elaborating the steps involved in the production of crime (Manganese, 2010, p. 7). ” The Cohen and Felon work provides the framework for Manganese, which identifies that crime involves “motivated offenders and suitable targets (individuals or their property), in the absence of effective guardians (Manganese, 2010, p. ). ” Basically, a criminal will always have a target, and will omit the crime only when there are no barriers to the criminal act. The motivation that pushes a supercritical is shaped by economic, social, cultural, educational and biological “determinants (Manganese, 2010, p. 4),” and choosing which of these determinants play the largest role in influencing the criminal to act is the question of motivation. In Engagement’s model, the main motivation of the supercritical is dictated by Mascots theory of hierarchical needs.

The pyramid structure of Mascots hierarchy suggests that the higher up the hierarchy an individual is, the less likely that person is to become a supercritical. Moreover, the five levels in Mascots hierarchy would then provide a classification for subliminally. Manganese also points to the studies of Brown regarding cost-benefit analysis, where the criminal will assess the costs and the potential benefits of the crime as part of the “barrier (Manganese, 2010, p. 9)” that would prevent the motivation from translating into action.

In this case, the unique aspect of cybernetics’s reliance on technology available is an integral part of the cost-benefit analysis. What Manganese has presented is a very basic motivational model for cybercafé. However, his usage of Mascots hierarchy is problematic, given how the theory is already heavily contested in recent literature concerning human needs. Moreover, Engagement’s article is lacking in a more nuanced exploration of the role of technology in cybercafé.

His work is almost a restatement of established motivational models on criminal motivation, without any clear distinction as to why subliminally are different from those who commit physical crimes. The most common literature that touches on the motivation of subliminally are works that explore the social influences that lead to hypercritical activity. In this body of literature, there is a more complex exploration of supercritical motivation.

A comprehensive sociological account of cybercafé and subliminally is provided by Nor Strike in his book The Global Cybercafé Industry: Economic, Institutional and Strategic Perspectives. The book takes on a macroscopic view of cybercafé, looking at how the current batch of subliminally operate through an organized manner, but may also be state sponsored or politically motivated. Sketcher’s work has a notable early chapter on the economics of hypocrite, identifying the financial attractiveness of the target as providing a strong push factor towards committing cybercafé.

An interesting observation that Strike makes is that cybercafé is a “skill-intensive (Strike, 2010, p. 37)” crime. Murder, arson, kidnapping and other crimes do not require a specific and trained skillet. Because of the skill-intensive nature of cybercafé, most individuals who are actually capable of committing cybercafés are also able to have a stable and financially rewarding occupation. If this is so, then financial concerns would not motivate subliminally heavily.

Here Strike points to the increased role of the socio- economic and political aspects of the environment that surrounds a potential supercritical. In a later chapter of the book focusing on the concentration of subliminally in developing countries, he identifies that these places are more conducive to the commission of supercritical acts, since those with the proper skillets are not provided the economic opportunities that would prevent them from engaging in cybercafé (Strike, 2010, p. 168).

In developed countries, the large IT industries provide enough Job opportunities for those skilled in information genealogy and computer software. However, in developing countries, the lack of those opportunities essentially motivate an individual to take advantage of his skillet by engaging in cybercafé. It is the socio-economic context that deprives the individual of taking advantage of his skills, hence the redirection of those skills to criminal activity. Sketcher’s work is certainly a very enlightening one, but it is focused mainly on the larger picture of cybercafé.

Indeed, the solutions presented by the book are mainly political and economic, addressing the issue through larger social forces and influences. There is a lack of exploration of the more personal and psychological aspects that motivate subliminally. Most of the other literature that touch on supercritical motivation at a personal and psychological level look at history and dwell on profiles of subliminally. Cybercafé: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace by Susan W. Brenner is an example of such a work.

Burner’s book is a comprehensive text that serves as a primer to cybercafé. In the last Chapter, Brenner explores the supercritical and his motivation using history and case studies. She structures her exploration by the type of supercritical. Brenner starts with the hacker, which is someone who uses code in order to access digital information. She notes how in the early days of the mainframe, most hackers were “sport hackers (Brenner, 2010, p. 123),” in that they committed cybercafés for fun or for “sport. It was an act motivated by showcasing their skills as computer programmers, which essentially touches on the “skill-intensive” observation of Strike and the highest level of Mascots pyramid in Engagement’s article. But as computer literacy became more prevalent, which occurred alongside the easier and cheaper access to computers, hackers became more oriented towards reaping economic rewards in their cybercafés. This is because even low-income individuals can learn to hack, and have the necessary equipment to hack. Another economically-motivated supercritical identified by Brenner are online fraudsters.

She notes that fraud is a more conventional crime, but the proliferation of cheap computers have allowed conventional fraudsters to migrate online. These subliminally mainly adapt the same tricks and modus operandi from the real world into the digital space. Fraudsters do have an extra advantage in becoming subliminally, given the anonymity conferred by the Internet. Moreover, it increases the number of “targets” that a fraudster may take advantage of: “cyberspace gives criminals the ability to target victims who are halfway around the world.

This not only increases the pool of available victims, it also makes it easier for the online perpetrators to avoid being identified and apprehended by law enforcement (Brenner, 2010, p. 126). ” Referring to the motivational model suggested by Manganese, there is a dramatically weaker barrier to cybercafé that is fraudulent in nature compared to conventional fraud. This is a major reason as to why there is a strong motivation to commit cybercafé. Brenner identifies that stalking subliminally “are driven by various motives. Like Fraudsters, there is a basis of stalking in conventional crime. Stalking subliminally are almost always related to sexual desires or romantic relationships. Burner’s studies have found that “ex-partner stalking is the most common of the four categories of stalking. They note that this type of stalking is likely to involve the use of threats and that the stalker’s motivations derive from issues of power, control, and redeem (Brenner, 2010, p. 129). ” Other stalking cybercafés include obsessive stalking or delusional fixing stalking.

In these cases, the motivation may be largely informed by biological forces. Subdirectories may also include stalking, particularly when terrorist cells are observing the security for their next attack. Burner’s work is very good, as it does focus more on psychology and personal experience in trying to understand subliminally and their motivations. However, the profiling and historical approach assumed by his book seems to draw from a few cases and often rates stereotypes rather than assuming a more rigorous research.

Darin motivation action plan

Maurice scored slightly below the means in the Job satisfaction section, but scored midway in the employee engagement and scored high in the current emotions assessments. Things that could affect Maurice, she doesn’t like the way her boss handle business and incompetence his decision making. Maurice is positive and willing to be a team player. She’s setting great opportunities to reduce abnormal behavior in the workplace. Recommend motivational strategy for Maurice is to peruse management.

Maurice is very knowledgeable and her skills allow her to actively participate in the decision aging process with supervisors to gain their trust in managing for the organization. Maurice staying engaged in decision making on assignments will increase her independence and confidence. She’s a natural leader and not afraid to task her peers. This strategy will allow Maurice to be a valuable member of the managerial team and improve organizational communication. I think management should consider introducing Maurice to team projects, to increase her responsibilities and gain experience working with team efforts.

Giving Maurice more opportunities to get training will improve her skills set. Proper feedback evaluations from management and coworkers will help build her confidence and managerial competence. Evaluations will help her with negotiating her pay based on her individual and organizational performance. Miscellany’s Theory identifies three motivators. Achievement, Power, and Affiliation are needs to motivate individuals. The three motivators are what Maurice needs to pursue more responsibilities and be a positive influence for other in the organization to emulate.

Tony Tony scored high in the Job satisfaction, employee engagement , and current motions self assessments. With high satisfaction tends to lead to lower levels of absenteeism and turnover. His positive emotions can influence his coworkers in the work place. Base on the assessment results Tony is valuable to the organization and should be encouraged to take a more managerial role. Tony is motivated with organizational skills to complete assignments ATA high level. Working with management will develop strategies that Tony can form from his natural work abilities.

Tony will establish client relationship and expand Jobs erratically that’s beneficial to the organization core values. He’s great at organizing tasks and establishing a meaningful work program for employees to follow. Tony should have responsibilities that were reserve for management. Finally give Tony feedback channels that will provide him with information about his performance. Tony’s performance evaluation will be leveraged with a variable-pay program, which is determined by an individual or organizational measure of Tony’s performance.

The variable-pay system has proven to improve motivation and production. Recommendation from is the self-efficacy and goal-setting theories are applied to motivational theory. Tony’s confidence in his abilities will reinforce the employees ability to succeed. Tony seeks out the most difficult assignments and masters the challenges which management assigns. Tony highly motivated attitude will increase production and the organization with a highly skilled employee base. Arming Arming scored higher for Job satisfaction, and current emotions, but scored low in the employee engagement self-assessments.

His high scores indicate lower rates of remover and absenteeism. Higher scores promote Job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, and the devotion of time to work through problems. Management needs introduce new responsibilities to Arming work program to enhance the variety of duties and for the organization to benefit from the skill sets he exhibits. Additional responsibilities and interaction with co-workers will probably result in more positive emotions and commitment to the Job. The performance evaluations will be primarily based on individual task outcomes and employee behavior.

In an effort to motivate Arming the employee evaluation will be leveraged with the skill-based pay rewards system. This system encourages employees to develop leadership skills and promotes professional development. Employees are rewarded for attaining skills and knowledge to be able to work across the organization to complete a variety of assignments. This will allows him to use a number of different skills and talents while performing a variety of work activities. Management needs to provide, clear and direct feedback to Arming.

This will help in rumoring confidence in Job performance and in the improvement of the employee’s abilities and professional development. Management recommends for Arming is, goal-setting theory applies to the motivational strategy. This goal-setting theory convey positive motivational results in performance pertaining to defining specific goals, challenging the employee skills and decision-making abilities, and providing relevant feedback to the employee . Armin’s achievement of goals will provide the internal rewards that motivate his peers to strive for the best; which improves the organizations dependability.

Disney Motivational Strategy

Walt Disney Is quoted as saying “of all the things I’ve done, the most vital is coordinating the talents of those who work for us and pointing them toward a certain goal” (Disney Dreamer, 2008, 41). It can be said that this management philosophy has contributed to eight decades of business success that has helped the company to become the business conglomerate Walt Disney is today. Co-founded by Walter Alias Disney, the Walt Disney Company today has branched out to various entertainment studios, theme parks, products and other media productions.

How did one man’s ream form and manage an enterprise that has established itself as a household name through-out the world? The Walt Disney Company was established In a small office In Los Angels California In the summer of 1923. Walt Disney moved to California from Kansas City Missouri with hopes of marketing his creative talent in the film industry. Walt had made a short film called “Alice in Wonderland” that he hoped to use as a pilot film to break into the industry. Partnered with his brother Roy they formed “Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio” and changed the name to “Walt Disney Studio” per Rosy suggestion.

Wall’s first break Into the entertainment business came when a distributor by the name of M. J. Hinkler contracted with the studio on October 16, 1923 to release a series to the public called “Alice Comedies. ” This marked the formal beginnings of the Walt Disney Company (Corporate Disney, 2008). The company started to take off as Walt Disney hired animators to produce Oswald cartoons through his distributor, Mr.. Hinkler. As money grew tight Walt needed Hinkler to provide him with the finances to keep producing his series.

It was at this time that Walt found out the distributor was going behind his back to create his own audio using Walt Disney’s animators. Since Hinkler owned the distributor rights to the Oswald cartoons there was nothing that Walt could do. It was at this point that Walt Disney vowed that he would own everything that he made (Corporate Disney, 2008). This was the event that led to the creation of the Mackey Mouse cartoons minion and the popularity of the Disney name. The company grew gradually despite the Flanagan difficulties the brothers experienced over the years.

The Disney brothers did not let this hamper their efforts and soon established themselves as an independent production company in Hollywood. In the sass’s Walt Disney was offered $300 to allow a marketer to imprint Mackey Mouse on paper tablets for children. Walt agreed as he truly needed the money. This began the production of Disney consumer products and has led them to be one of the most recognizable media brands In the world today. The war years (1 939 to 1945) were financially difficult for the company but Disney did not give up. The studio made educational films for the United States government as well as made animated comedies.

After the war the company branched out by concentrating their efforts towards films using people versus cartoon characters. In the asses Disney tapped Into the television audience with a weekly show that children to expand his business ventures by opening up the theme park – Disneyland in Anaheim, California. This business venture was and still is one of Disney’s biggest successes. In the asses Disney had a dream to continue to offer family entertainment by developing plans to open up an entertainment and educational complex in Florida. This project became known as Walt Disney World.

Unfortunately, Disney did not get to realize the accomplishment of this dream as it was completed after his death. Roy died two month’s after Walt Disney World opened in October of 1971. Despite the deaths of the two Disney brothers the company is still thriving today – not only in the United States but through-out the world. The company continues to expand their business offerings through media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, and consumer products. The Walt Disney Company has seen much financial success as it operates as world- wide entertainment company.

Headquartered in Burbank California, Disney employs over 130,000 people. Revenue is generated through the operation of the company’s our segments. These operating segments are: Media Networks (television, radio, and the internet); Studio entertainment (live-action and animated motion pictures, musical recordings and video programming); Consumer products (products and licenses to promote and sell the Disney characters and other intellectual property); and Parks and Resorts ticket sales, room nights at the hotels, and rentals at the resort properties).

Financially, the company has earning stability according to the year-end fillings with the Security Exchange Commission (SEC). Positive net income has been reported for he last five years. The Media Networks division appears to be their biggest generator of income for Disney which brings in about 41% of their revenue while the Consumer Products segment produces about 7% of their revenue. Disney’s Parks and Resorts also have been successful revenue generators for the company.

In 2007 alone operating income increase 11% from the prior year. According to Robert Alger, president and chief executive officer of Walt Disney Company, the positive financial results are a direct result of “strong brands, combined with high-quality creative intent and our ability to promote and distribute the content across multiple businesses and platforms” this gives Disney “the unique ability to continue delivering growth and value to our shareholders” (Disney. Com, 2007, 2).

It can be said that Walt Disney’s ability to foster the spirit of creativity, innovation and excellence still continues to underlie the company’s success they enjoy today. Disney corporations pride is in maintaining the “magic “of Disney. Their slogan is the happiest place on earth. Guests from all over the world come and enjoy the magical experience of the imagination of Walt Disney. All of this imagination has created characters and a world of fantasy that is shared in a full day at theme parks.

The mission statement that the company has created is to make people happy, all of this “wholesome American values” and the creativity of dreams and imagination. The organization structure of Disney involves the board of directors; any decision related to the organization is brainstormed through the directors before the decision is approved by the CEO Bob Alger. Keeping in consideration that Disney Corporation has subsidiaries under them such as Disney Studios, the theme parks in California,

Florida, Japan, Paris and Hong Kong; Disney also has Disney consumer products and media networks. All these Disney entities have different business proposals that require attentive decision making. This is all carefully done with the board of directors. At Disney, “the bottom line is imagination, our culture is magic and wonder, and required previous work experience: childhood dreams. ” Such insightful rhetoric entices employees to put forth their best effort to live up to the self-imposed hype. Disney’s approach to employee motivation and satisfaction is based on Frederick

Herbage’s theory that motivation comes from within the individual, rather than from a policy imposed by the company. Disney provides each of its 130,000 employees world-wide with the opportunity for recognition for achievement, increased responsibility because of performance, opportunity to grow in knowledge, chance for advancement, and improved maintenance items such as wages, off-hour programs and self-development opportunities. Disney is very aware that the only way of meeting customer’s expectations is by delivering the magic through the staff.

The culture of quality perfected at Disney’s theme parks could not prevail without employee buy-in. To gain employee acceptance, the concept of show business is promoted as an organizational culture. The employee is not hired for a Job, but cast for a role in the show. Hired employees are called cast members, wear costumes not uniforms, and they play before an audience of guests, not a crowd of customers. When they are in a guest environment; they are onstage; when they are in an employee environment, he or she is backstage.

Prior to any interview, Disney presences applicant by showing prospective employees a video prior to filling out an application. This provides an opportunity to opt out of the hiring process if they do not agree with Disney’s expectations regarding appearance, guidelines, or even having their own transportation. After being selected for a role, cast members spend their first day at Disney University where are taught, amongst Disney traditional values, that their roles are bigger than their Jobs. The cast is charged with creating magic moments for its guests.

Additionally, cast members are empowered to make the right decision and provide the right behavior for each guest he or she comes into contact with. Empowerment of the Disney cast begins with a service theme of “creating happiness” for people. Disney then provides extensive training, ongoing communication, and dependable support systems to help the cast make the right decisions in each guest encounter. Cast members uphold the standards of courtesy, efficiency, safety and show, along with aligning personal values, traits and behavior with those of the organization. F the company. These principles are: (1) Make Everyone’s Dreams Come True, (2) You Better Believe It, (3) Never a Customer, Always a Guest, (4) All for One and One for All, 5) Share the Spotlight, (6) Dare to Dare, (7) Practice, Practice, Practice, (8) Make Your Elephant Fly, (9) Capture the Magic with Storyboards, and (10) Give Details Top Billing (Capital and Jackson, 1999). Although all these are an integral part of the company, the first, fourth, and seventh principles are significant for employee motivation. Make Everyone’s Dream Come True,” outlines the importance of allowing members of the organization to dream and develop his or her creative talents (Capital and Jackson, 1999). Disney encourages creativity in all its employees. This encourages articulation and is credited with a decreased turnover rate as compared to the industry’s competitors (Capital and Jackson, 1999. The fourth principle, “All for One and One for All,” highlights the importance of teamwork and empowerment of the employees.

Teamwork is described as a method of fostering intense loyalty, enthusiasm and commitment. Because the focus at the Disney Company is to make sure that each guest has a memorable and pleasant experience, it doesn’t matter whose “Job” is to pick up a piece of trash. It becomes everyone’s responsibility (Capital and Jackson, 1999). The seventh principle, “Practice, Practice, Practice” outlines the importance of formal and continuous training (Capital and Jackson, 1999). Initially, Disney’s initial training programs covered only the very basic essentials to keep operations going.

During those early years, the training consisted of a first-day orientation, with some on-the-Job training and a few recreational programs for employees. As Disney began to grow, more emphasis on training and the total employee environment was needed. Disney University’s challenge is to offer employees the finest working environment possible. To meet this challenge Disney training programs had to be executed in an effort to show interest and concern for the growth of the employees and the Disney organization. The name “Disney University” extends well beyond training and education implications (Cook, 1974).

More than training is included at the university. The university feels a responsibility to the whole person; the university helps employees achieve their goals as the organization achieves its goals. A very important responsibility of the Disney University is the preservation of Walt Disney’s motivational philosophies and traditions. The university staff is concerned not only with an employee’s education and development, but also with his or her motivation, morale, communication and physical working atmosphere. The university also provides social and recreational activities for the employee.

The Disney web site states: “The Company has a tradition of innovation and creativity that is the result of hiring and motivating diverse employees with a wide range of its cast; to do this they start with committed leaders at the top who are willing to set examples. Disney applies the concept of cross servicing during peak hours. During Hess periods, supervisors and managers set aside their normal duties and help the cast in all other areas of the operation, including; food service, Janitorial service, ticketing and guest assistance at all attractions.

The cross-servicing concept allows cast members to see management in action and provides an extraordinary opportunity to model good behaviors and appropriate Job/people skills. Every year, The Walt Disney Company holds service awards dinners at its theme parks around the world. All the company vice presidents are in attendance, and Disney employees receive plaques, Jewelry and other merchandise depending on heir years of service. “When we hear of an employee doing something special, we bring it to the attention of Michael Eisner and he personally sends them a letter of thanks” (Alonzo, 1994).

Every Christmas, the Walt Disney Company opens Disneyland for employees and families only with executives running the park. Disney provides a broad spectrum of recreational, social, cultural and special activities for employees and their families. These activities include sport programs of all types, theater workshops, community services, special employee-only visits to the “Magic Kingdom,” film festivals and previews, various travel and entertainment orgasm, and comfortable break and eating areas for employees.

Employees are also provided with housing assistance, doctor and dentist referrals, and a variety of merchants who offer discounts to Disney employees (Cook, 1974). Employees (or Cast Members as they are commonly referred to) are afforded a wide range of benefits such as health, dental and life insurance packages. Cast members are also given complimentary theme park passports allowing them to access any of the Disney parks at no charge as well as Cast Member discounts on products and merchandise. Disney associates are also reimbursed for education, receive stock options and are eligible for service awards.

Those with children who live near Anaheim or Orlando can take advantage of the childcare centers while they go to work. The many benefits motivate employees and form a good basis for employee retention. Disney incorporates distinctive values in it workplace. Innovation, quality, community, storytelling, optimism and decency are the foreground to its success. These core values resonate in very product Disney produces ensuring the consumer receives the highest quality entertainment product available. In 2006 Disney ranked number one n the Businessman’s “best places to launch a career” (Disney 2006, Business Week).

Disney’s strong on-campus recruiting, solid benefits and collaborative culture helped put the entertainment giant at the head of the Business Week ranking, which identifies top employers for new college graduates. At Disney, life is fun. People who come to enjoy Disney products are having fun and and be in good spirits. It helps motivate the guests to have fun. When the guests have fun they come back; when they come back the company generates revenue. Walt Disney was able to transform his imagination into a living organism that attracts people from all over the world.

This business has left a legacy for many generations and is still an attraction that our upcoming generations are looking forward to exhaust and live for their children. Walt Disney was a true genius. He was able to turn fantasies and stories into a booming business that appears will be never ending. Walt Disney recognized that “whatever we accomplish is due to the combined effort. The organization must be with you or you don’t get it done. In my organization there is respect for every individual, and we all have a keen respect for the public” (Disney Dreamer, 2008, 54) Walt Disney’s management philosophy holds true today.

Disney is a model for success. The company’s proven methods for employee motivation leave little if any for improvement. The finely evolved practice of putting associates before profits has yielded abundance in popularity and name recognition for the organization all over the world. For the foreseeable future, it does appear that Walt Disney Company will continue to expand its business and remain profitable. This can be contributed to the ability of management to foster the spirit of employee reiterative, innovation, and excellence that continues to underlie all the company’s success.